Structural Fan-In and Fan-Out metrics

Structural fan-in (SFIN) and fan-out (SFOUT) values measure the relationships between files and between procedures. They measure the complexity of the static (design-time) structure of code.

A useful way to look at SFIN and SFOUT is to view them as graph metrics. Visualize procedures (or files) as nodes and calls between them as as links. Fan-in is the number of links coming into a node. Fan-out is the number of arrows going out of a node.

Fan metrics for files and procedures are related to each other, but they are counted with different rules.

SFIN and SFOUT for procedures

For procedures, structural fan-in and fan-out are calculated from the procedure call tree.

SFIN (procedure) = number of procedures that call this procedure SFOUT (procedure) = number of procedures this procedure calls

Structural fan-in and fan-out example The picture on the left shows a simple call tree for one procedure. There are 2 calls coming into the procedure. Thus, SFIN=2. On the other hand, SFOUT=3 as this procedure calls 3 other procedures. The other procedures are not shown in the picture.

A high SFIN indicates a heavily used procedure, while a low SFIN is the opposite. A high SFOUT means the procedure calls many others. A procedure with SFOUT=0 is a leaf procedure that depends on no other procedures (it may depend on the data it reads, though).

SFIN=0 indicates that no procedure callers were found in the analysis. It does not necessarily indicate a dead procedure, however. The procedure may be in use via an invisible call. An example of this is an event handler which triggers based on user action. Use the dead code detection feature of Project Analyzer to find and remove dead code.

SFIN and SFOUT for files

For files, structural fan-in and fan-out are calculated from the file dependency tree.

SFIN (file) = number of files that depend on this file SFOUT (file) = number of files this file depends on

A file depends on another file if it requires the other file to compile or run. It may call procedures in the other file, read/write its variables, access its constants, or use its class, interface, UDT or enum declarations. A high SFIN indicates a heavily used file, while a low SFIN is the opposite. A high SFOUT means the file depends on many others. A file with SFOUT=0 is independent of others.

SFIN and reuse

A SFIN value of 2 or more indicates reused code. The higher the fan-in, the more reuse.

A high SFIN is desirable for procedures because it indicates a routine that is called from many locations. Thus, it is reused, which is usually a good objective.

A high SFIN is not as desirable for a file. While it can indicate good reuse, it also represents a high level of cross-file coupling. SFIN for a file should be "reasonable". We leave the definition of "reasonable" to be determined case by case.

SFIN and inlining

A special use for procedure-level SFIN is the detection of procedures that could be inlined. If a procedure's SFIN is low but positive, it has a small number of callers. Depending on what the procedure does and how complex it is, you could possibly embed it within the caller(s). This is a speed optimization technique. We don't recommend inlining for usual coding because keeping the code modular improves reuse and legibility.

SFOUT and coupling

A high SFOUT denotes strongly coupled code. The code depends on other code and is probably more complex to execute and test.

A low or zero fan-out means independent, self-sufficient code. This kind of code is easier to reuse in another project or for another purpose. A file whose SFOUT=0 is a leaf file in the project. You can include it in another project as such and it will most probably continue to work the same way.

To evaluate the average coupling between files, monitor the average SFOUT/file value. This is the average of "how many other files my files depend on". Try to keep this value low. Achieving a low cross-file coupling should be done via restructuring and planning. It should not be achieved by just mechanically joining files — so keep an eye on the file sizes as well. Notice that SFOUT/file is likely to be higher in a large system because the parts of the system need to interact with each other. As your project grows, SFOUT/file is likely to increase even if your code is well designed.

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