7-bit character sets

ASCII, ISO 646 and IA5 are well-known 128-character sets that are fundamental to computing. Several versions of these standards were released in the past. This article discusses the history of ASCII and related national 7-bit character sets as well as the differences between their versions. Character tables are included.

When computers were young in the early 1960s, it was decided that text should be represented with 7 bits for each character. Seven bits would be enough to represent 128 different characters, including letters, numbers, symbols and required control codes. 6 bits were too few. 8 bits were considered too much. The standard became 7.

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) was the first 7-bit character set to be standardized. During the years, several revisions of ASCII were published. ASCII based character sets became immensely widespread. Most character sets in current use are based on ASCII in a way or another.

ISO 646 and IA5 (CCITT International Alphabet No. 5) are the international counterparts of ASCII. ISO 646 and IA5 are ASCII-like standards that define more or less the same 128-character set as ASCII. The main difference is that these standards are international. ASCII is the U.S. national version of ISO 646.

National character sets. From the very beginning it was realized that 128 characters were not enough for international use. Each country required its own national characters with letters, accents and other diacritics. To meet this need, ISO 646 defined an International Reference Version (IRV), which each country could tune up to their national needs. Certain character positions could be replaced by national characters. A large number of country-specific versions were standardized. The versions were registered in the ISO/IEC International Register of Coded Character Sets (IR).

In addition to the these sets, several other 7-bit character sets were defined. 7-bit sets have later been replaced with 8-bit, 16-bit, even 32-bit character sets. Still, the 7-bit sets are the fundamental building blocks of almost all of today's character encoding systems.

See also: Character sets

Revisions of ASCII

ASCII has undergone several revisions to become the character set we know today. The history of ASCII is not always fully understood. As an example, IANA lists ASCII as the same thing as ANSI_X3.4-1968 and ANSI_X3.4-1986. This is not entirely accurate. The 1968 revision was ambigous. The ambiguities were fixed later, making the 1986 revision different from the 1968 revision.

The ASCII version that became standard was first published in 1967 and 1968. The character set of these versions is identical. However, it is not actually what we currently think of as ASCII. The Number Sign (#) could be replaced by the symbol £. The character in position 7C was actually a broken vertical bar (¦). It was broken to prevent confusion with logical OR (|). In later standards this position is either a vertical bar (|) or a national character. According to ASCII-1967 and ASCII-1968, three characters could be "stylized". "!" could be stylized as "|" to represent logical OR. "^" could be stylized as "¬" (logical NOT). The character "˜" was called an overline when used as punctuation, and as a tilde when used as a diacritic. It could also be used for another accent.

ASCII-1963 (ASA standard X3.4-1963) was the initial release of ASCII. It was in many ways different from the ASCII in current use. ASCII-1963 didn't yet gain wide acceptance. One of the reasons is that IBM chose to use EBCDIC, an IBM proprietary character set, in its successful SYSTEM/360 series of computers released in 1964.

ASCII-1965 was an unpublished major revision. It looked a lot like the current ASCII, even though there were differences with certain characters. ASCII-1965 was accepted as a standard, but it went unpublished and unused.

ASCII-1967 (USAS X3.4-1967) was a major revision of the previous versions of ASCII. This was the version that eventually evolved to the ASCII we know today. ASCII-1967 was not exactly what we currently think of as ASCII. The differences are as follows. ASCII-1967 offered some options for certain characters, and one character was totally ambigous. The Number Sign (#) could be replaced by the symbol £. Two characters could be stylized. The Exclamation Point (!) could be stylized as a logical OR (|) and the Circumflex (^) could be stylized as a logical NOT (¬). Character 7C, even though called a Vertical Line, looked like a broken vertical bar (¦). It looked that way to avoid confusion with a solid vertical bar (|) used as a logical OR. In other words, since character 21 could sometimes look like (|), 7C had to look like (¦). In addition, character 7E (˜) had several functions. It was called an Overline when used as punctuation, a Tilde (˜) when used as a diacritic, and a General Accent when used for yet another accent. Oddly enough, the Overline didn't actually look like an overline (¯).

ASCII-1968 (USAS X3.4-1968) was a minor revision. It didn't change any of the graphic characters. The only change was to the "newline" function. LF could now be used alone as a newline. The previous versions required the use of CR LF (or LF CR). The 1968 standard also gave the code its name ASCII or USASCII.

ASCII-1977 (ANSI X3.4-1977) fixed some of the ambiguities of ASCII-1967 and ASCII-1968. The Number Sign (#) could no longer be replaced by the Pound (£). Character 7C was now a Vertical Line (|) that no longer looked like a broken vertical bar. One could no longer stylize the Exclamation Point (!) as a (|) or the Circumflex (^) as a logical NOT (¬). Overline was no longer present; it was simply a Tilde (˜). That character couldn't be used as a General Accent either. ASCII-1977 also changed the definitions of several control characters. The changes did not necessarily change the intended use of these characters. An essential change was with VT and FF: it was now possible to allow an "optional implicit CR" after VT and FF the same way it was already possible with LF. More changes can be found in Control characters in ASCII and Unicode.

ASCII-1986 (ANSI X3.4-1986) did not change the character set nor the control characters.

Tilde (position 7E) is a character that Unicode and ASCII disagree on. Tilde was originally meant as a diacritic. Its location was higher up on the line (˜) rather than in the middle (~), making it possible to use as a diacritic to form characters such as õ or ñ. Tilde looks like (˜) in all versions of ASCII and also ISO 646 and IA5. Unicode 1.0 re-defined the character as TILDE (U+007E), which was a spacing character not meant as a diacritic. Unicode 1.0 accepted both versions (~ and ˜) as alternative representations of the same character. In addition, three other tildes were encoded: ASCII style "upper tilde" (˜) became available as two additional characters, SPACING TILDE (U+02DC) and NON-SPACING TILDE (U+0303). A midline tilde was also encoded as TILDE OPERATOR (U+223C). Since Unicode 2.0, the regular TILDE is represented as a midline tilde (~). Later Unicode versions have added even more tildes.

Revisions of ISO 646

ASCII was accepted, with modifications, as an ISO recommendation in 1967. ISO 646 (officially, 7-bit coded character set for information processing interchange) was an inherently international standard. The basis was "IRV", an International Reference Version, which could be tuned up to national needs. ASCII was the US national version of ISO 646. Other national versions were published for Canada, Finland, France and so on by replacing certain graphic characters with national characters.

ISO R 646-1967 was the first official version of the standard (then called a recommendation). This version didn't provide an IRV yet, but only a skeleton chart to be filled by national standards organizations. The character set was similar to that of ASCII-1977 with the following differences: In place of the Number sign (#) there was a Currency symbol (£). Characters | { | } were totally missing; their locations were empty. Character 7E was an Overline (¯).

National versions could be produced by assigning national characters in place of those characters that in ASCII are @ [ \ ] { | }. In ISO R 646-1967, though, only @ [ and ] were in place, and the remaining slots were empty. When more national characters were needed, characters ^` ¯ could also be replaced by national characters. In specific, character 7E (¯) could be used as ˜ or another diacritical sign. £ could be replaced by # in countries where £ was not needed. A special "Sterling" rule governed characters colon (:) and semi-colon (;). They could be replaced by number symbols for 10 and 11, respectively. This was designed for Sterling currency subdivision.

ISO 646-1973 was the second version of the standard. This was the first version to define an IRV. The IRV was similar to ASCII-1977 with the following differences: In place of the Dollar sign ($) there was a Currency sign (¤). Character 7E (¯) was called Overline, Tilde, but it was supposed to look like an overline in the IRV.

National versions could be produced by assigning national characters in place of characters @ [ \ ] { | }. When more national characters were needed, characters ^` ¯ could be used for the same purpose. In specific, character 7E (¯) could be used as ˜ or another diacritical sign. Thus, national characters would appear at the same positions as before. The allowed characters in the "currency positions" were now (£ or #) for position 23 and ($ or ¤) for position 24. The "Sterling" rule was dropped.

ISO 646-1983 has not been available at the time of writing this article. Based on references in other sources, the IRV kept the Currency sign (¤). A change appears to have been made in the IRV as regards the Overline or Tilde character. Different interprentations on this character have been made in related standards. ECMA-6 (1985) lists this character as TILDE, OVERLINE (~). In IA5 (1988) the character was Tilde, overline (¯). In the IBM codepage 1009, which is based on ISO 646-1983, it is (˜).

The ISO International Registry appears to list the ISO 646-1983 character set as set number 002, but the actual document is actually from ISO 646-1973.

ISO/IEC 646:1991 is the current release. The IRV of 1991 replaced the Currency sign (¤) by the dollar ($).

Revisions of International Alphabet No. 5 (IA5 / IRA)

CCITT standardized the International Alphabet No. 5 (or just IA5). It was meant for data transmission on the general telephone network or on telegraph networks. IA5 is closely related to ISO 646.

IA5, 1968 version (V.3) was the initial standard. This standard has not been available at the time of writing this article.

IA5, 1972 version (V.3) amended the 1968 version. IA5 of 1972 is an almost word-for-word copy of ISO 646-1973. Character 7E (¯) was called Overline, tilde. It looked like (¯) in the IRV, but could be used as ˜ or another diacritical sign in national use.

IA5, 1988 version (T.50) corresponds to ISO 646-1983. The character set was an exact copy of that of the 1972 version. Confusingly, the IRV character 7E (¯) was now called Tilde, overline. It looked like an overline with no alternative representation as a tilde. No explanation was given as to its use. In national versions of IA5, no specific character was given in this position, but it should vary from nation to nation.

IRA, 1992 version (T.50) is the current standard. IA5 is now called IRA, International Reference Alphabet. IRA is technically equivalent to ISO/IEC 646:1991. Changes in the IRV relative to the 1988 version of IA5 were as follows. The Currency sign (¤) was replaced by the Dollar sign ($). Character 7E was now Tilde. Confusingly, the Tilde appears as ~ on page 9 and as ˜ on page 12 of the document.

Table of differences

The following table lists the differences of the character sets with respect to ASCII-1986. The reference line "ASCII" is on the top. An empty cell means there same character is used both in ASCII-1986 and the other set. A gray cell means no character was defined in that position. A cell with 2 or 3 characters means alternative characters were available in that position.

Position hex IR CP 21 22 23 24 2D 40 5B 5C 5D 5E 5F 60 7B 7C 7D 7E
Reference (ASCII) ! " # $ - @ [ \ ] ^ _ ` { | } ˜
ASCII-1965 ` ˜ @ ¬ |
ASCII-1967 and ASCII-1968 ! | # £ ^ ¬ ¦
ASCII-1977 and ASCII-1986 006 367
ISO646 Invariant 170
ISO R / 646-1967 £ # (@) ([) (]) ¯ ˜
ISO646 IRV (1973), IA5 IRV (1973, 1988) 002 ¤ ¯
ISO646 IRV (1991), IA5 IRV (1992) 006 367
ISO646-CA Canada 121 1020 à â ç ê î ô é ù è û
ISO646-CA2 Canada 122 à â ç ê É ô é ù è û
ISO646-CN China 057 ¥ ¯
ISO646-CU Cuba 151 ¤ ¡ Ñ ] ¿ ´ ñ [ ¨
ISO646-DE German 021 1011 § Ä Ö Ü ä ö ü ß
ISO646-ES Spanish (Olivetti) 017 § ¡ Ñ ¿ ° ñ ç
ISO646-ES2 Spanish languages 085 1014 · ¡ Ñ Ç ¿ ´ ñ ç ¨
ISO646-FI Finland, ISO646-SE Swedish 010 1018 ¤ Ä Ö Å ä ö å ¯
Finland Extended version # £ ¤ $ Ä Ö Å ^ \ | ` { [ ä ö å ¯ } ]
ISO646-SE2 Swedish for official writing of names 011 ¤ É Ä Ö Å Ü é ä ö å ü
ISO646-FR1 French (1973) 025 1114 £ à ° ç § é ù è ¨
ISO646-FR French (1982) 069 1010 £ à ° ç § µ é ù è ¨
ISO646-GB UK 004 1013 £ ¯
ISO646-HU Hungarian 086 ¤ Á É Ö Ü ^ á é ö ü ̋
ISO646-IT Italian (Olivetti) 015 1012 £ § ° ç é ù à ò è ì
ISO646-JP Japanese Roman 014 ¯
ISO646-JP-OCR-B Japanese OCR-B 092 ¥
ISO646-NO Norwegian 060 1016 Æ Ø Å æ ø å ¯
ISO646-NO2 Norwegian v2 (withdrawn) 061 § Æ Ø Å æ ø å |
ISO646-PT Portuguese (Olivetti) 016 § Ã Ç Õ ã ç õ °
ISO646-PT2 Portuguese (IBM) 084 1015 ´ Ã Ç Õ ã ç õ
ISO646-YU Serbocroatian and Slovenian 141 Ž Š Đ Ć Č ž š đ ć č
Irish (Gaelic) 207 £ Ó É Í Ú Á ó é í ú á
T.61 Teletext 102 ¤
NATS Finland and Sweden 008-1 UA Ä Ö Å UB ä ö å -
NATS Denmark and Norway 009-1 « » UA Æ Ø Å UB æ ø å -
Viewdata and Teletext (UK) 047 £ ½ ¼ ¾ ÷
HP German $ § Ä Ö Ü ä ö ü ß
HP Spanish ¡ Ñ ¿ ° ñ
Unicode 1.0
Unicode 2.0.0 and later ~

IR = Number in International Register of Coded Character Sets
CP = IBM codepage

ASCII-1963 is very different from all the other sets, see below.

ASCII-1963

NULL SOM EOA EOM EOT WRU RU BELL FE0 HT/SK LF VTAB FF CR SO SI
DC0 DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 ERR SYNC LEM S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7
! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
@ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ]
                               
                        ACK   ESC DEL

ASA X3.4-1963

ASCII-1965

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SS ESC FS GS RS US
! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
` A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ ˜ ] ^ _
@ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z { ¬ } | DEL

X3.4-1965

¬ is called overline. The hook appears to distinguish it from underline. X3.4-1965 was approved as a standard, but not published.

ASCII-1967 and ASCII-1968

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! | " # £ $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
@ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ ¬ _
` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z { ¦ } ˜ DEL

USAS X3.4-1967 and USAS X3.4-1968

Where "#" is not required, it can be replaced by "£". "!" could be stylized as "|" to represent logical OR, and "^" could be stylized as "¬" (logical NOT). "¦" appears in two parts to prevent confusion with logical OR "|". The character "˜" is called an overline when used as punctuation, and as a tilde when used as a diacritic. It can also be used for another accent.

ASCII-1977 and ASCII-1986

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
@ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _
` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z { | } ˜ DEL

ANSI X3.4-1977 and X3.4-1986. View

US-ASCII. The tilde (˜) was meant to be an accent, so it should appear high rather than in the middle (~). ISO-IR 006 is similar to ASCII-1977 and ASCII-1986, despite it saying it was based on ASCII-1968.

ISO646 Invariant

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! "     % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
  A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z         _
  a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z         DEL

ISO/IEC 646:1992 (ISO-IR 170). View

82 invariant graphic characters of all versions of ISO/IEC 646.

ISO R / 646-1967

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " £ # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
(@) A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ([)   (]) ^ _
` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z       ¯ ˜ DEL

ISO R / 646-1967

Where "£" is not required, it can be replaced by "#". The empty slots and parenthesized slots are primarily for national characters.

ISO646 IRV (1973), IA5 IRV (1973, 1988)

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " # ¤ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
@ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _
` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z { | } ¯ DEL

ISO 646-1973, CCITT V.3-1973, ITU-T T.50 (1988). View

ISO646 IRV (1991), IA5 IRV (1992)

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
@ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _
` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z { | } ˜ DEL

ISO/IEC 646:1991, ITU-T T.50 (1992). View

Similar to US-ASCII and also ISO-IR 006.

ISO646-CA Canada

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
à A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z â ç ê î _
ô a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z é ù è û DEL

CSA Z243.4-1985 (ISO-IR 121). View

Alternate Primary Graphic Set Nr. 1

ISO646-CA2 Canada

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
à A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z â ç ê É _
ô a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z é ù è û DEL

CSA Z243.4-1985 (ISO-IR 122). View

Alternate Primary Graphic Set Nr. 2

ISO646-CN China

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " # ¥ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
@ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _
` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z { | } ¯ DEL

GB 1988-80 (ISO-IR 057). View

ISO646-CU Cuba

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " # ¤ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
@ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ¡ Ñ ] ¿ _
` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z ´ ñ [ ¨ DEL

NC 99-10:81 (ISO-IR 151). View

ISO646-DE German

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
§ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Ä Ö Ü ^ _
` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z ä ö ü ß DEL

DIN 66 003 (ISO-IR 021). View

ISO646-ES Spanish (Olivetti)

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
§ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ¡ Ñ ¿ ^ _
` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z ° ñ ç ˜ DEL

Variant of ISO 646 for the Spanish language (ISO-IR 017). View

ISO646-ES2 Spanish languages

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
· A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ¡ Ñ Ç ¿ _
` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z ´ ñ ç ¨ DEL

A version of ISO 646 for the Spanish Languages (ISO-IR 085). View

ISO646-FI Finland, ISO646-SE Swedish

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " # ¤ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
@ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Ä Ö Å ^ _
` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z ä ö å ¯ DEL

SFS 4017, SEN 85 02 00 Annex B (ISO-IR 010). View

Finland: Basic version.

Finland Extended version

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " # £ ¤ $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
@ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Ä Ö Å ^ \ | _
` { [ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z ä ö å ¯ } ] DEL

SFS 4017

The five positions allow an alternate symbol, if agreed on between sender and recipient.

ISO646-SE2 Swedish for official writing of names

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " # ¤ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
É A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Ä Ö Å Ü _
é a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z ä ö å ü DEL

SEN 85 02 00 Annex C (ISO-IR 011). View

ISO646-FR1 French (1973)

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " £ $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
à A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ° ç § ^ _
` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z é ù è ¨ DEL

NF Z 62-010 (1973) (ISO-IR 025). View

Withdrawn.

ISO646-FR French (1982)

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " £ $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
à A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ° ç § ^ _
µ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z é ù è ¨ DEL

NF Z 62-010 (1982) (ISO-IR 069). View

Revised.

ISO646-GB UK

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " £ $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
@ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _
` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z { | } ¯ DEL

BS 4730 (ISO-IR 004). View

ISO646-HU Hungarian

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " # ¤ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
Á A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z É Ö Ü ^ _
á a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z é ö ü ̋ DEL

MSZ 7795/3 (ISO-IR 086). View

ISO646-IT Italian (Olivetti)

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " £ $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
§ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ° ç é ^ _
ù a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z à ò è ì DEL

Variant of ISO-7 for Italian (ISO-IR 015). View

ISO646-JP Japanese Roman

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
@ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _
` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z { | } ¯ DEL

JIS C 6220 1969 (ISO-IR 014). View

ISO646-JP-OCR-B Japanese OCR-B

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
@ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ ¥ ] ^ _
  a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z { | }   DEL

JIS C 6229-1984 (ISO-IR 092). View

ISO646-NO Norwegian

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
@ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å ^ _
` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z æ ø å ¯ DEL

NS 4551 Version 1 (ISO-IR 060). View

ISO646-NO2 Norwegian v2 (withdrawn)

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " § $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
@ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å ^ _
` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z æ ø å | DEL

NS 4551 Version 2 (ISO-IR 061). View

ISO646-PT Portuguese (Olivetti)

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
§ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Ã Ç Õ ^ _
` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z ã ç õ ° DEL

A version of ISO 646 for the Portuguese Language (ISO-IR 016). View

ISO646-PT2 Portuguese (IBM)

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
´ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Ã Ç Õ ^ _
` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z ã ç õ ˜ DEL

A version of ISO 646 for the Portuguese Language (ISO-IR 084). View

ISO646-YU Serbocroatian and Slovenian

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
Ž A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Š Đ Ć Č _
ž a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z š đ ć č DEL

JUS I.B1. 002 (ISO-IR 141). View

Irish (Gaelic)

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " £ $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
Ó A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z É Í Ú Á _
ó a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z é í ú á DEL

Irish Standard 433:1996 (ISO-IR 207). View

T.61 Teletext

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " # ¤ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
@ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [   ]   _
  a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z   |     DEL

CCITT T.61 (ISO-IR 102). View

NATS Finland and Sweden

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
UA A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Ä Ö Å _
UB a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z ä ö å - DEL

ISO-IR 008-1. View

Newspaper text transmission. 45=long dash, minus sign. UA=Unit space A. UB=Unit space B. 94=solid.

NATS Denmark and Norway

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! « » $ % & ' ( ) * + , . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
UA A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å _
UB a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z æ ø å - DEL

ISO-IR 009-1. View

Newspaper text transmission. 45=long dash, minus sign. UA=Unit space A. UB=Unit space B. 94=solid.

Viewdata and Teletext (UK)

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " £ $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
@ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ½
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z ¼ ¾ ÷ DEL

ISO-IR 047. View

Alphanumerics for viewdata and broadcast teletext.

HP German

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " $ $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
§ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Ä Ö Ü ^ _
` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z ä ö ü ß DEL

HP PCL5

HP Spanish

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
@ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ¡ Ñ ¿ ° _
` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z { ñ } ˜ DEL

HP PCL5

Unicode 1.0

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
@ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _
` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z { | } DEL

Unicode 1.0. View

Two alternative representations (~|˜ ) exist for the TILDE character. Similarly, the DOLLAR SIGN ($) has two representations, with one or two vertical bars.

Unicode 2.0.0 and later

NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
@ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _
` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
p q r s t u v w x y z { | } ~ DEL

Unicode 2.0.0. View

Alternative representations are no longer given. The TILDE character has a mid-line representation (~).

Sources

Registers

Individual standards

  • ASA standard X3.4-1963. American Standard Code for Information Interchange.
    http://www.wps.com/projects/codes/X3.4-1963/index.html
    Note: ASCII-1963.
  • Proposed Revised American Standard Code for Information Interchange. Communications of the ACM Vol 8 Nr 4 (April 1965), p. 207–214.
    Note: ASCII-1965.
  • USAS X3.4-1967: USA Standard Code for Information Interchange. United States of America Standards Institute, New York, USA, 1967.
    Note: ASCII-1967.
  • USAS X3.4-1968: USA Standard Code for Information Interchange. Reprinted as NIC 11246 in Feinler & Postel (ed.): Arpanet Protocol Handbook. NIC 7104 Rev. Jan 1978. ADA-052 594. Network Information Center, Menlo Park, California, USA.
    Note: ASCII-1968.
  • ANSI X3.4-1977: American National Standard Code for Information Interchange. American National Standards Institute, Inc, New York, USA, 1977. Also reprinted in McGraw Hill's Compilation of Data Communication Standards, edition II, McGraw-Hill, 1982.
    Note: ASCII-1977.
  • ANSI X3.4-1986: Coded Character Sets – 7-bit American National Standard Code for Information Interchange. American National Standards Institute, Inc, New York, USA, 1986.
    Note: ASCII-1986.
  • CCITT Recommendation V.3 (1972): International Alphabet No. 5. Reprinted in McGraw Hill's Compilation of Data Communication Standards, edition II, McGraw-Hill, 1982.
  • CCITT Recommendation T.50 (11/1988): International Alphabet No. 5. Reedition of CCITT Recommendation T.50 published in the Blue Book, Fascicle VII.3 (1988). International Telecommunication Union 2008.
    http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-T.50-198811-S/en
  • CCITT Recommendation T.50 (09/1992): International Reference Alphabet (IRA) (Formerly International Alphabet No. 5 or IA5). International Telecommunication Union 1993.
    http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-T.50-199209-I/en
  • ECMA-6: 7-bit Coded Character Set (5th edition 1985).
    http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-006-arch.htm
  • ISO / R 646-1967 (E): 6 and 7-bit coded character sets for information processing interchange. 1st edition December 1967. International Organization for Standardization, Switzerland.
  • ISO 646-1973 (E): 7-bit coded character set for information processing interchange. ISO Standards Handbook 1: Information transfer, 1st edition, 1977. Also reprinted in McGraw Hill's Compilation of Data Communication Standards, edition II, McGraw-Hill, 1982.
  • ISO 646:1991: Information technology – 7-bit coded character set for information processing interchange.
  • SFS 4017: 7-bit coded character set for information processing interchange. Suomen standardisoimisliitto, 1977. (Finnish Standards Association SFS)
  • The Unicode Standard, Version 1.0.0. ASCII, p. 172–175. The Unicode Consortium, 1991. ISBN 0-201-56788-1.
    http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode1.0.0/CodeCharts2.pdf
  • The Unicode Standard, Version 2.0. C0 Controls and Basic Latin, p. 7-6. The Unicode Consortium, 1996. ISBN 0-201-48345-9.
    http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode2.0.0/CodeCharts1.pdf
  • The Unicode Standard, Version 6.1.0. Archived Code Charts, C0 Controls and Basic Latin. The Unicode Consortium, 2012. ISBN 978-1-936213-02-3.
    http://www.unicode.org/Public/6.1.0/charts/CodeCharts.pdf

Vendor material

Last updated in August 2014 (Unicode 1.0 and tilde)

7-bit character sets
URN:NBN:fi-fe201201011004

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